Paul Marie Theodore Vincent d'Indy(1851-1931), French composer, his early music education was directed by his grandmother. After serving in the Franco-Prussian War, he completed study with Cesar Franck. He was organist at St. Leu, and taught at the Conservatorie. By the late 1870s he began to emerge as a major figure in French music, he composed large, serious works. From 1897 he taught composition at the Schola cantorum. He remained uncompromisingly loyal to his artistic ideals and active as musician and composer until the end of his life. He composed operas, symphonic poems, and chamber music.